E-Cigarettes 200 Times Less Toxic Than Analogs, New Study Shows

E cigarette vapor contains only a fraction of the toxins found in cigarette smoke, as well as a significantly lower concentration of nicotine, according to a new study.

Dr. Murray Laugesen’s research, published today in the New Zealand Medical Journal, confirms that electronic cigarettes are hundreds of times less dangerous than tobacco cigarettes. His study involved testing 14 e cigarette brands for nicotine and known toxins. The results were then compared with the findings of a similar study dating from 2008, as well as the nicotine and toxins in the smoke of a Marlboro cigarette. The tested products were purchased online in 2013, owing to their illegality in New Zealand.

Lab tests showed that the electronic cigarettes bought in 2013 emitted around 200 times less toxic aldehydes (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acrolein) than a Marlboro cigarette, and a whopping 73% less aldehydes than the e cigarette from 2008. Dangerous substances frequently associated with electronic cigarettes by opponents of vaping, like diethylene and monoethylene glycol, were not detected in vapor.

It’s not all good news, though. The electronic cigarettes labelled as “high-strength” (16-18+ mg nicotine) actually contained anywhere between 5-46 mg nicotine. “We found differences between labelled and actual nicotine content,” Dr. Laugesen wrote in his paper. “These highlight a lack of quality control that should be attended to through monitoring as part of a regulatory regimen.”

However, even under these conditions, the nicotine delivered in each puff was still way below what you get from a tobacco cigarette. The highest nicotine concentration per puff registered in Laugesen’s study was 93 mcg, whereas the Marlboro cigarette used for control delivered 147 mcg with each breath. Results also showed that the newer e-cigs delivered higher amounts of nicotine than the ones from 2008.

The difference in nicotine labeled on the packaging and the actual content is no doubt cause for concern and acts as evidence that quality control should be the main priority right now. “If government does decide to regulate e-cigarettes, that’s something they should consider,” Dr Murray Laugesen said. “In the meantime we have 5000 people dying every year from smoking conventional cigarettes. Nicotine e-cigarettes do not cause cancer, do not kill people. They’ve been on sale since 2007 in the west and there are no reports of cancer or suchlike from them.”

Dr. Laugesen’s research shows not only that e-cigarettes are hundreds of times less toxic than tobacco, but also that these revolutionary devices are evolving into less harmful and more effective alternatives to smoking.

“The most robust evidence on whether e-cigarettes can help people to stop smoking used older-generation e-cigarettes, but found that they were at least as good as nicotine patches in helping smokers to quit, and that e-cigarettes with nicotine were more effective than e-cigarettes without it,” researcher Oliver Knight-West of the National Institute for Health Innovation at the University of Auckland, said after reading Laugesen’s findings. Today’s products are far superior, and scientific studies like this are the best proof we could hope for.

“We of course cannot be certain that e-cigarettes are completely safe and that long-term vaping is risk-free, but we can be confident that if any negative health effects are detected, they will be very small compared to the proven dangers of tobacco smoking,” Knight-West added.

Nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes are currently classified as medicine in New Zealand, meaning they cannot be sold legally within the country, bu only ordered online from overseas, for personal use. Oliver Knight-West thinks it’s time that changed. “With the right framework, e-cigarettes with nicotine could be just the breakthrough to help hundreds of thousands of New Zealanders become smoke-free and live healthier, longer lives,” he said.

Source: http://vaperanks.com/e-cigarettes-200-times-less-toxic-than-analogs-new-study-shows/

An E cigarette report commissioned by Public Health England

A very positive report about vaporizers and ecigs commissioned by Public Health England has been published!
From the Report: “Smoking kills, and millions of smokers alive today will die prematurely from their smoking unless they quit. This burden falls predominantly on the most disadvantaged in society. Preventing this death and disability requires measures that help as many of today’s smokers to quit as possible.
The option of switching to electronic cigarettes as an alternative and much safer source of nicotine, as a personal lifestyle choice rather than medical service, has enormous potential to reach smokers currently refractory to existing approaches.
The emergence of electronic cigarettes and the likely arrival of
more effective nicotine-containing devices currently in development provides a radical alternative to tobacco, and evidence to date suggests that smokers are willing to use these products in substantial numbers. Electronic cigarettes, and other nicotinedevices, therefore offer vast potential health benefits.”

Source: https://www.gov.uk/…/att…/file/311887/Ecigarettes_report.pdf

Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung

More great Vaporizer Research newsFrom BMC Medicine: E cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung. From the article: “Compared to combustible cigarettes, e-vapor products are at least 96% less harmful and may substantially reduce individual risk and population harm.
Future research will better define and further reduce residual risks from EC use to as low as possible by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. Although large longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate whether ECs are a less harmful alternative to tobacco cigarettes and whether significant health benefits can be expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to ECs, the emerging evidence that EC use can reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor category”
Read the full Article here:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/54

E-cigs added to inflation basket

The growing popularity of e-cigarettes has seen them added to the basket of goods used to calculate UK inflation by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

Sales of “craft” beer made by speciality and micro-breweries will also be included thanks to increasing demand from drinkers and presence on store shelves, the ONS said.

Meanwhile sat nav devices are being removed, partly because many drivers now navigate using smart phones while some new cars have inbuilt devices.

The ONS currently uses 703 items to compile the basket of goods and services to make up the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Changes in CPI are used to measure UK inflation – which is at an all-time low of 0.3% for January.

Changes in the make-up of the basket are often seen as tracking the shifting habits of the British consumer.

E-cigarettes have increased in popularity with a substantial number of smokers switching to them as they attempt to quit the habit.

Recent figures from a PwC study on the types of shops opening and closing last year on the high street also pointed to increasing demand as they boosted store openings in the tobacconist category.

Also included in the ONS list today for the first time are music streaming services – such as Spotify – as well as online console computer game subscriptions.

Contents of the CPI basket of goods and services, and the weights placed on them when calculating official figures, are updated every year.

The changes are designed to reflect shifts in consumer behaviour which may be caused by price or due to longer-term trends.

Headphones have been added to the list amid their increasing purchase alongside games consoles or as an upgrade to free pairs that come with smart phones.

Mobile phone accessories such as chargers or covers are also being added.

Other changes include the addition of protein powders – popular among some gym users – as well as melons and sweet potatoes.

Foreign exchange commissions are being removed as these are not generally charged in the UK while consumers are increasingly using bank cards to buy goods and services abroad, the ONS said.

Also taken off the list are yoghurt drinks, due to falling sales.

Frozen pizza has been taken off the list too to be replaced by chilled pizza, which has overtaken it in popularity.

Liver has been added to the list to represent the market for offal which has not been in the basket since 1999.

The ONS said 13 items were added this year and eight removed.

Those added were: chilled pizza, liver, oven-ready joint of gammon/pork, melon, sweet potato, protein powder, bottled speciality beer/ale, electronic cigarette refills/liquid, non-white emulsion paint, mobile phone accessories, headphones, games consoles online subscription services, music streaming subscription services.

Items removed were: frozen pizza, home killed beef/braising steak, oven-ready joint, yoghurt drink, white emulsion paint, satellite navigation device, cut flowers/lilies, foreign exchange commission.

Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/pa/article-2998634/E-cigs-added-inflation-basket.html

 

Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart

E cigarette use does not cause any immediate adverse effects on coronary circulation and oxygen supply to the heart, according to a new study presented today in the European Society of Cardiology annual congress in Amsterdam.

Researchers at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, lead by principle investigator Dr Konstantinos Farsalinos, evaluated the effects of electronic cigarette use on the maximal ability of the coronary arteries to supply with blood and oxygen the heart itself. They recruited 60 participants, 30 smokers and 30 electronic cigarette users. Measurement of maximal coronary blood flow was performed in smokers before and after smoking 2 cigarettes and, on a separate day, after using an electronic cigarette with 18mg/ml nicotine concentration for 15 minutes. In electronic cigarette users, coronary circulation was evaluated before and after using the same electronic cigarette device for 15 minutes.

“This is the first study that has examined the effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation”, said leading researcher Dr Konstantinos Farsalinos. “We know that smoking has immediate adverse effects, lowering the ability of the coronary arteries to deliver blood to the heart, and our purpose was to test whether electronic cigarette use has similar effects”, he added.

After smoking 2 cigarettes, the researchers observed a 16% reduction in maximal coronary blood flow and a 19% elevation in resistance to flow. However, after electronic cigarette use, no difference in coronary blood flow and resistance was observed compared to the baseline measurement. “The results are impressive and indicate that, unlike tobacco, electronic cigarette use does not affect the oxygenation of the heart”, said Dr Farsalinos. “However, we must be cautious and make clear that this does not mean that there are no implications from long-term use. It is currently impossible to evaluate the effects of long-term use but currently available evidence strongly suggests that electronic cigarettes are by far less harmful alternatives compared to tobacco cigarettes.”

Public health authorities all over the world are evaluating the regulatory status of electronic cigarettes. Lately, the European Commission has proposed a medicinal regulation. Dr Farsalinos said: “Acknowledging the significant potential of electronic cigarettes as smoking alternatives and based on the scientific evidence which clearly indicated that they are much safer, it is important that health authorities will regulate these products in a way that will promote rather than restrict their availability and use by smokers who are unable to quit with currently approved medical methods.”

Source:http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/2013/127-no-adverse-effects

A cigarette that could actually save lives

ELECTRONIC cigarettes may be the greatest tool in the fight against lung cancer that the world has ever seen. They’re cheap, convenient and they’re helping smokers everywhere to quit.

And the best part about this health solution? It doesn’t involve government.

Demands for governments to identify and solve problems are a recipe for disaster. They lead to higher taxes and less freedom. A cure administered by the nanny state is worse than the disease.

Meanwhile, free markets are coming up with innovative ways to tackle some of our most deep-seated problems.

Take lung cancer. According to Cancer Australia, lung cancer was responsible for 8,114 deaths in Australia in 2011. Smoking increases the risk of cancer. The government response is regulation, taxes, advertising and sponsorship restrictions and bans.

A better response involves opening up markets and allowing individuals to make choices about their own lives.

There are a range of cigarette substitutes already on the market. Electronic cigarettes are the most prominent, and they’re currently taking the world by storm.

E-cigarettes are battery-powered nicotine vaporisers. They do not contain tobacco or produce smoke. E-cigarette users inhale vapour, which produces a similar effect to smoking without the health risks caused by the carcinogenic and toxins of combustible tobacco products.

The global e-cigarette market is worth around $2 billion. This is predicted to grow to $10 billion by 2020. Part of the success of this new product is that it is used as a device to help traditional cigarette smokers to quit tobacco.

It’s against the law to sell these products by claiming they have a therapeutic benefit. But the science is clear — e-cigarettes save lives.

An article published in August 2014 in the peer-reviewed Journal of Public Health concluded that “the use of [e-cigarettes] can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and withdrawal symptoms …”

In an article for BMC Medicine last year, Peter Hajek of the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine said: “although there is no doubt that smokers switching to electronic cigarettes substantially reduce the risk to their health, some tobacco control activists and health organisations discourage smokers from using [e-cigarettes] and lobby policy makers to reduce [e-cigarette] use by draconian regulation.”

E-cigarettes and reduced risk products should be seen for what they are — the latest in cutting-edge tobacco quitting devices.

It’s against the law to sell these products by claiming they have a therapeutic benefit. But the science is clear — e-cigarettes save lives.

The Therapeutic Goods Administration should recognise the medical benefits of these products and immediately approve their use for thousands of Australians trying to quit smoking.

Governments should be making room for life-saving innovations. Markets for new products that allow individuals to make better choices must be allowed to flourish.

Where governments have failed the free market will succeed.

Source: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/opinion/a-cigarette-that-could-actually-save-lives/news-story/6cc759e5146be0e3beda691045459d0e

French Health Barometer Reveals 400,000 People Have Quit Smoking Using E-Cigarettes

While health experts and legislators have yet to make up their mind about the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, the public seems to have already decided. According to the France’s 2014 INPES Health Barometer, around 400,000 people have managed to quit smoking with the help of electronic cigarettes.

The National Institute of Prevention and Education for Health has recently released the results of the 2014INPES Health Barometer. It focuses mainly on smoking in France, but for the first time ever, it also contains interesting data on the use of electronic cigarettes. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of the French population – 15,000 people aged 15 to 75.

The analyzed data reveals that 99% of the population has heard about e-cigarettes, but its use is less widespread: 26% (around 12 million people) have tried electronic cigarettes at least once, 6% (around 3 million) call themselves as vapers and 3% (1.5 million) use e-cigarettes on a daily basis. Overall, the majority of users tend to be young and male: 45% of 15-24-year-olds have tried electronic cigarettes, compared to only 5% of 65-75-year-olds, and 29% are male compared to 23% women.

Among daily vapers, three quarters said they were still smokers (regular or not), while the other quarter was made up of ex-smokers. Vapers reported using electronic cigarettes for four months on average, while 9% reported using them for over a year. The main reasons cited for using electronic cigarettes were nicotine addiction, the ever-growing prices of tobacco cigarettes and health benefits.

But the most important finding of the 2014 INPES Health Barometer was that electronic cigarettes do seem to be helping smokers quit, a result backed-up by several scientific studies. After analyzing collected data, researchers were able to estimate that around 0.9% of the French population (around 400,000 people) were able to quit smoking with the help of electronic cigarettes. An average decrease of 8.9 cigarettes a day was also observed in current smokers who are also using e-cigarettes.

In fact, more than a third of current smokers reported having decreased the number of daily cigarettes smoked compared to 2010, a statistic believed to also be linked to the rise in popularity of electronic cigarettes.

Source: http://vaperanks.com/french-health-barometer-reveals-400000-people-have-quit-smoking-using-e-cigarettes/

Some advices for new vapes

In the past year, a growing number of former smokers turn to the electronic cigarette, because it’s less harmful than real cigarette. Vape (or “smoking” e cigarette) has become mainstream. Because e cigarette simulated smoking experience, and now 75% of the United States who are trying to quit smokers to electric cigarette, according to the latest statistics.Vaping has been the most popular choice over-the-counter smoking cessation. The researchers also discover vape is 65 % far better than other ways to quit smoking.

The e-cigarette market is projected to US$2 billion in USA. Some celebrities become an advocate of electronic cigarette and openly criticize their smoking habits. And many companies like Innokin, Kanger, Joytech are trying to promote their products in this tide.

The emergence of electronic cigarette is extremely beneficial to save lives, because former smokers hoping to quit smoking by this new method.

Although the electronic cigarette is designed to simulate the experience of real cigarettes, it’s not exactly the same experience with real smoke. In fact, the feeling of electronic cigarette is like smoking a hookah pipe, not everyone feels the same. For the new vape, disposable electronic cigarettes should consider to try. One or a pack sold separately in the shop, and it continued about 350 puffs. There are two basic flavors to choose: tobacco and menthol. Disposable electronic cigarette is more affordable than rechargeable electronic cigarette, and the size is also the same with the real cigarette.

New vape will take some time to adapt the disposable electronic cigarette, for it’s tasting and feeling. And some of the new vape still eager to continue smoking with the traditional cigarette. But once he could accept disposable electronic cigarette, rechargeable electronic cigarette (e-cigarette or pen) would be more cost-effective than the disposable electronic cigarettes in the long run. Because the rechargeable electronic cigarette has rechargeable batteries, it’s bigger than disposable e cigarette and it’s much larger and heavier.

Generally, rechargeable electronic cigarette kit contains at least 1 battery, 1 clearomizer tank ,1 USB charger and various flavors of e juice, such as tobacco and fruit flavors, etc. Electronic cigarette kit is probably in the tens to hundreds of dollars, which depends on the brand. Currently, you can buy electronic cigarettes in retail stores, small retail stores, smoke shops and online shop.

Rechargeable e cigarette offers endless array of customized options for vapes, much better than disposable e cigarette. Vapes can achieve different amount level of smoke & taste by adjusting different resistance. The battery needs to be recharged about once a week, for about one hour to use. The E juice also comes with variety of nicotine levels and flavors, so vapes can test different ways and find the best vaping experience.

California Joins Baseless Bashing of E-Cigarettes

SUPERSTITIONS ARE ALIVE and well. Not the kind athletes and other performers are known to indulge in, but big ones, like the belief in witches centuries ago, that affect all of us. One example: the weird war that health officials continue to wage against electronic cigarettes. E cigarette have been a godsend to people who wish to give up smoking or avoid taking up the habit in the first place. These devices involve no smoke, only a vapor, but give one the pleasure of nicotine without wrecking the lungs.

Smoking among teenagers is at the lowest level since authorities began surveying people back in 1975. Not coincidentally, e-cig usage among teenagers has grown enormously. But instead of being hailed as the most effective anti-smoking tool ever, e cigarette have been pilloried as the devil’s device to hook the unwary to tobacco and forposing hideous health threats to users. The latest example is a report entitled “A Community Health Threat” from the California Department of Public Health, which apocalyptically attacks vape and calls for drastic action to curb their use.

It turns out this report is scientific garbage: It twists facts, quotes scientific studies out of context and is laced with outright whoppers. Health expert Sally Satel succinctly and thoroughly demolishes this egregious example of junk science in a piece on Forbes.com (honesty-on-e-cigarettes). “It is stunning that a public agency entrusted with the health of the population of California would promote such a one-sided, scientifically impoverished document.”

Alas, California isn’t an outlier in these baseless assaults. Other health officials who know better indulge the current hysteria. Numerous cities and states are imposing cigarette-like restrictions/bans on these life-saving devices. And politicians are pushing for punitive taxes on them.

The new surgeon general, Dr. Vivek Murthy, has sensibly noted that there’s a “desperate need of clarity” on the subject of e cigarette. If a fact-based, nonhysterical approach were taken, all would be well. But don’t count on anything like that happening. The fanatical fervor of antismoking crusaders won’t be stopped by objective science. The reason? Vape too closely resemble the real thing–which is like waving the proverbial red cape in front of a bull. But there’s also another factor at work: an intolerant, puritanical mind-set that is offended because e-cigs make abstaining from or giving up cigarettes too easy. Forsaking smoking should involve pain, not pleasure!

Instead of focusing on sensible guidelines to ensure the safe and sound manufacturing of electronic cigarettes, antismoking jihadists indulge in what might be called a scorched-earth approach. All tobacco products are regarded as equally bad–a scientific falsehood–and anything resembling cigarettes, even when no tar or smoke is involved, must be quashed.

Source: http://www.forbes.com/sites/steveforbes/2015/02/11/california-joins-baseless-bashing-of-e-cigarettes/#1b6dd8d64ce3

The Misbegotten Crusade Against E-Cigarettes

When electronic cigarettes came to the U.S. about 2007, I was skeptical. My assumption was they were a ploy by the tobacco industry to hook more people into smoking under the guise of being a safer product—the notorious low-tar cigarette scam all over again. But as I talked to many e-cigarette users, known as “vapers,” conducted research (Journal of Public Health Policy, 2011) and reviewed a growing body of scientific evidence, I became convinced that e-cigarettes have dramatic potential for reducing disease and death caused by smoking.

Yet many in the antismoking movement—in which I have been involved for decades—are conducting a misleading campaign against these products. And this campaign may be doing harm to public health.

The most common claim about e-cigarettes is that they are a “gateway” to smoking. In September 2013 ThomasFrieden , director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said “many kids are starting out with e-cigarettes and then going on to smoke conventional cigarettes.” He added that electronic cigarettes are “condemning many kids to struggling with a lifelong addiction to nicotine.”

These statements had no basis in fact when he made them, and the evidence is that they are bogus. One recent study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (January 2015) suggests that e-cigarettes are not acting as a gateway to smoking among youth. Another study in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence (February 2015) suggests the addictive potential of e-cigarettes is substantially lower than that of tobacco cigarettes.

E cigarette might even be a deterrent to tobacco addiction. Their use by high-school youth tripled between 2011 and 2013, rising from 1.5% to 4.5%, according to CDC data, and then, according to a University of Michigan study, skyrocketed in 2014, when 16% of 10th-graders and 17% of 12th-graders reported using them. That study reports a decline in youth smoking to a historically low level in these years, with smoking among 10th-graders dropping to 7.2% from 11.8% and among 12th-graders falling to 13.6% from 18.7%.

Other unfounded fears about vape abound. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes entice ex-smokers to return to nicotine use and then back to cigarette smoking. There also is no evidence that e-cigarettes are hindering the quitting process for smokers who—if not for e-cigarette—would have quit completely. What we do know suggests that e-cigarettes are indeed a gateway: a one-way gateway away from combustible cigarettes and toward a much safer alternative product.

Are electronic cigarettes safe? Of course not. But e-cigarette don’t need to be absolutely safe. By definition, harm reduction involves an alternative product that is much safer. As electronic cigarettes contain no tobacco and do not involve combustion, they do not expose users to most of the more than 60 carcinogens in tobacco smoke, and they appear to be safer by orders of magnitude.

Still, to address legitimate safety concerns, the Food and Drug Administration should set uniform safety standards for e-cigarettes and “vaping” products. These standards should include childproof packaging, battery safety, quality-control standards for nicotine labeling and for the production of e-liquids, and modest regulation of flavorings such as a ban on diacetyl, a flavoring which when inhaled can cause a rare form of obstructive lung disease. The temperature of the coils also needs to be regulated to prevent overheating of the e-liquid, which results in the production of formaldehyde, a recognized carcinogen.

These regulations would go far toward maximizing the benefits of e-cigarettes while minimizing the risks. But instead of working to get them, the products are being demonized by those who should know better.

Earlier this month the California Department of Public Health published a pamphlet, “Protect Your Family From E-Cigarettes,” that claimed“E-cigarettes are just as addictive as regular cigarettes.” This flies in the face of the research published in December by the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, which showed that e-cigarettes are much less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. That study found that the addictiveness of e-cigarettes is equivalent to that of nicotine gum, an FDA-approved smoking cessation product.

The same pamphlet asserted that “studies show that vape do not help people quit smoking tobacco cigarettes.” But a rigorous clinical trial in the Lancet showed e-cigarettes to be just as effective as the nicotine patch in getting smokers off cigarettes.

A January report by the California Department of Public Health on electronic cigarettes—“State Health Officer’s Report on E-Cigarettes: A Community Health Threat”—concludes that “there is no scientific evidence that e-cigarettes help smokers successfully quit traditional cigarettes.” But it does not cite the Lancet study, nor another, earlier clinical trial (Internal and Emergency Medicine, August 2014), which concluded that “long term e-Cigarette use can substantially decrease cigarette consumption in smokers not willing to quit and is well tolerated.”

Last month a New England Journal of Medicine article reported extremely high levels of formaldehyde in the aerosol of an electronic cigarette and concluded that vaping may therefore be more harmful than smoking. But the study was carried out under unrealistic conditions in which the e-liquid was severely overheated. Under more realistic conditions the study failed to detect any formaldehyde. Unfortunately, the e-cigarette cancer scare had already been spread through the media.

In the U.K., the percentage of smokers quitting each year steadily declined until 2011, but increased from 2011 to 2014, a period when the proportion of smokers using e-cigarette increased from 2% to 14%. A U.S. study (Nicotine & Tobacco Research, October 2014) reported that during the same period smokers who used e-cigarettes daily were six times more likely to quit than those who did not. This was extremely good news, but more recently the news is not so good.

Bloomberg Business reported last summer that e-cigarette sales began to slip in the U.S., and their use by smokers may even be declining in the U.K. The percentage of the public that believes smoking is more hazardous than electronic cigarettes has fallen to 65% in 2013 from 85% in 2010, according to a 2014 study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

This is a tremendous lost opportunity. Vaping technology—or something like it that may be developed—has the potential to be one of the greatest antismoking breakthroughs. I would hate to see its promise wasted because of misinformation by the very public-health authorities who should be in the vanguard of reducing the harm from cigarettes.

Dr. Siegel, a professor at the Boston University School of Public Health, has conducted tobacco research for 25 years and has been an advocate for antismoking policies.

Source: http://www.wsj.com/articles/michael-b-siegel-the-misbegotten-crusade-against-e-cigarettes-1424821708